Aéroports De Paris

A major player in French aeronautics, this company owns and manages the 3 main airports in the Greater Paris Region:

  • Paris-Charles de Gaulle
  • Paris-Orly
  • Paris-Le Bourget


Atelier International du Grand Paris

Separate from the Société du Grand Paris (SGP), AIGP is a public interest group that is managed by the Deputy Mayor of Paris. AIGP brings together architects and town planners selected to carry out urban studies around the challenges linked to the Greater Paris project such as multi-modal transport, housing, economy or even town planning. The Board includes representatives from the government, the Greater Paris Region, the City of Paris and Paris Métropole.


Association des Maires d’Ile-de-France

The Association of Mayors in the Greater Paris Region brings together 80% of the region’s mayors. It gives opinion on issues including urbanism, taxation, environment, transport and employment in the Greater Paris Region.


Agence Nationale pour la Rénovation Urbaine

The National Agency for Urban Regeneration was created by Jean-Louis Borloo in 2004 while he was Minister for Towns and Urban Regeneration; this agency reports in to the Ministry for Urban Affairs.

The overall aim of the agency is to support broad-based urban projects to fully transform areas by:

  • Renovating buildings, road networks and facilities;
  • Re-incorporating areas into the wider city;
  • Creating a social mix in housing;
  • Introducing mixed use by diversifying activity (retail, economic activity, culture and leisure).

Arc Express       

A project for an inner-suburb public transport introduced by the Greater Paris Region Authority in 2007 for the key areas of the Region Master Plan (SDRIF – Schéma Directeur Régional d’Ile-de-France).

Following agreement with the State, it officially merged with the Greater Paris public transport network on the 26 January 2011 to become Grand Paris Express as it is known today.


Based on the Vélib’ model (self-service bicycle network), Autolib’ is a self-service electric car service.


Chambres de Commerce et d’Industrie

The Chamber for Commerce and Industry is administered by retailers and manufacturers who are elected by universal suffrage. The CCI represents the interests of businesses within a geographic area.

As an example, the Greater Paris Region includes the CCIs in Paris (75), Hauts-de-Seine (92), Seine-Saint-Denis (93), Val-de-Marne (94), Val d’Oise (95), Seine-et-Marne (77) and Versailles-Yvelines (78).

CDG Express     

A rail project providing a direct link from Paris to the Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle airport. This project is currently at the definition stage.


Contrat de Développement Territorial

A Territorial Development Contract is a document signed by the State and Local Authorities as part of the Greater Paris project. It is an agreement on one or many development and urban project(s) around the stations of the Grand Paris Express (GPE) transport network.


A grouping of businesses and institutions (schools, universities, research centres, etc.) that share a common expertise within the same territory. The cluster allows for an increase in French competitiveness through a drive for innovation, improving France’s international profile and to encouraging growth in employment.


Direction Régionale et Interdépartementale de l’Equipement et de l’Aménagement d’Ile-de-France

The Regional and Interdepartmental Department for Facilities and Planning in the Greater Paris Region is linked to the activity of the Ministry for Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy and operates under the authority of the Regional Prefect.

Its main aims are to:

  • Sustainably plan and develop territories;
  • Contribute to the implementation of the “Greater Paris” project;
  • Develop a transport system and means of travel that meet the objectives of the Grenelle environment plan;
  • Participate in housing development by working with the Regional and Interdepartmental Department for Housing and Accommodation in the Greater Paris Region;
  • Refocus engineering knowledge and expertise into sustainable development;
  • Strengthen methods of understanding territories, studies and forecasts;
  • Become the technical benchmark in terms of eco-construction and sustainable buildings, particularly in the context of “Etat exemplaire” (exemplary State).


Déclaration d’Utilité Publique

The Declaration of Public Utility is an administrative procedure that allows a town planning project to be carried out, such as the creation of a new communications infrastructure, a school or a building plot on private land via compulsory purchase. It is obtained following a public utility enquiry.

Public enquiry   Organised by the Prefect for at least one month (renewable as required), it allows for the public to be informed of a potential project and to evaluate public opinion.

Following this public dialogue, the enquiry commission drafts a report which sets out the enquiry process and draws conclusions specifying whether or not they are in favour, subject to conditions or against the project.

A public enquiry is valid for 5 years prior to the launch of a project.


Est Ouest Liaison Express

The East West Express Link is a line in the Greater Paris Region network which was opened in phases between 1999 and 2003, it is also referred to as RER E. The line links the Haussmann-Saint-Lazare centre (Paris) with Chelles-Gournay and Tournan (Eastern outer suburbs of Paris). The line will be extended to the West of the Capital. The extension will serve La Défense in particular, through to Mantes-la-Jolie. This line is fully managed by the French railway company, SNCF.



Etablissement Public de Coopération Intercommunale

The Public Body for Inter-municipal Co-operation is a grouping of communes which aims to develop a number of elements as a shared project, such as transport, town planning or environmental management.  There are two categories of EPCI:

  • Tax levying EPCI (local authorities and towns)
  • Non-tax levying EPCI (inter-municipal syndicates)


A high-speed train linking the Gare du Nord station to London in 2 hrs 15.


Train à Grande Vitesse reliant Paris Gare du Nord à Londres en 2h25.

Global City

First and foremost a global city is a major city with strong links to the global economy. It is an essential part of global flows (goods, capital, information, migration) and acts as a command centre for globalisation.


Groupement des Autorités Responsables de Transport

Founded in 1980, the Transport Authorities Association, brings together 280 transport authorities:

  • 194 city and urban communities;
  • 63 general councils
  • 23 regional councils.

GART is the reflection and exchange platform for elected transport representatives. It aims to improve and develop public transport in France.

Grand Paris Express      

Is a project to develop an automated métro around Paris as part of the Greater Paris project. It is one of the cornerstones of the project. The future network aims to develop 4 new métro lines (lines 15, 16, 17 and 18) which will call at 72 stations. Extensions to line 11 and 14 are also planned and will gradually come into service from 2017.

Greater Paris Public Transport Network

Commonly referred to as “Métro Grand Paris”, this was the initial project proposed by the State to create a new public transport network worthy of a global city. It officially merged with the Greater Paris Regions’ “Arc Express” on the 26 January on the 26 January 2011 to become Grand Paris Express as it is known today.


Institut d’Aménagement et d’Urbanisme d’Ile-de-France

The Town Planning and Greater Paris Region Urbanism Institute is a public interest research house which specialises in carrying out studies, surveys and research into town planning and urbanism in the Greater Paris Region. Its work serves in the development and foundation of implementing future town planning and urbanism policy.

Since 2004, IAU IDF has also acted in the elaboration of the SDRIF in support of the Greater Paris Region and its services.   It was formerly called the Institut d’Aménagement et d’Urbanisme de la Région Ile-de-France (IAURIF).



The name given to line 14 of the Paris metro by the RATP. This line was opened in 1998 and was the capital’s first automated service.

Métropole du Grand Paris        

Future inter-communal structure as defined by the law dated 27 January 2014 which will form the governing structure of the Greater Paris project. It will bring together mainly the City of Paris and the 3 bordering departments of the Inner suburbs:

  • Hauts-de-Seine (92) ;
  • Seine-Saint-Denis (93) ;
  • Val-de-Marne (94).

The Métropole du Grand Paris (MGP) is due to be created by 1 January 2016.


Opération d’Intérêt National

The Operation of National Interest refers to a town planning operation in a territory or within a given perimeter to which a particular legal structure applies due to its public interest. This legislation effectively allows the State (via the Prefect) to reclaim town planning and urbanism capabilities that were previously under local authority control.

(Examples in the Greater Paris Region: OIN La Défense, OIN Saclay, OIN Sénart,  OIN Paris-Charles de Gaulle, OIN Orly, …)


A light railway which provides a direct link between the RER B station Anthony and Orly airport. This privately funded line came into service in 1991 and was taken on by the RATP 20 years later. This rail section has a unique pricing structure and normal transport passes from the Greater Paris Region cannot be used.

Paris Métropole

A mixed, open research association which brings together 45 inter-communes and 150 communes in the Greater Paris Region.

Created in 2009, its role differs from that of the Métropole du Grand Paris. Its role is to be a channel for territorial authorities’ reflections on the extension of the Paris metropole; in this capacity it can participate in the works of the Grand Paris Express and the Métropole du Grand Paris.

Pass Navigo      

Pass Navigo is a chip-activated card used for some transport season tickets for travel within the Greater Paris Region on the RATP and SNCF networks.


Plan de Déplacements Urbains

Urban Travel Plans have become compulsory for cities with more than 100,000 residents, the STIF is responsible for these for the Greater Paris Region. Set out for a 5 to 10 year period, the plan determines the organisation of transport for people and goods, traffic and parking. It allows action to be taken to ensure a better balance when considering mobility while taking into account the protection of the environment and health.

Plan de mobilisation    

Mobilisation plan that allows for the modernisation and development of the existing Greater Paris Region transport network.

This project is undertaken by the Greater Paris Region and STIF. It will account for €7 billion in funding by 2017, this is made possible by combining financing from the Region, the State, the Société du Grand Paris and other partners. Its implementation includes the modernisation of RER lines and network development:

  • RER E extension to the West;
  • Extending metro lines;
  • Developing new tram lines.


Plan Local d’Urbanisme

Local Urbanism Plan document urban planning at commune level. A PLU must comply with stipulations set out in the Territorial cohesion plan (Schéma de Cohérance Territoriale – SCOT). If no SCOT exists, the PLU may be based directly on the region’s planning document in which the commune is located: SDRIF in the Greater Paris Region.

Kyoto Protocol International treaty which aims to combat climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Built on the United Nations’ Framework Convention on Climate Change, it was adopted in 1997 but only came into force in 2005.

This protocol sets out a framework for applying measures to prevent and correct the harmful effects of climate change. These are measurable engagements that are legally binding in commitment to the convention.

The signatory countries have accepted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.5% over the 2008-2012 period compared to levels seen in 1990. These goals vary from country to country and the means for implementation are flexible.


Régie Autonome des Transports Parisiens

The Paris Public Transport System is a Public Industrial and Commercial Establishment (EPIC) which runs the Paris metro and part of the RER and tram network.


Réseau Express Région d’Ile-de-France

The Greater Paris Region’s Regional Express Trains are made up of 5 lines (A, B, C, D and E) which provide public transport to Paris and the region. Partially managed by the RATP and the SNCF, the network carries 2.7 million passengers every day. The central part of the network was built between 1962 and 1977 when it was officially inaugurated.


Réseau Ferré de France

The French Rail Network was born in a separation from the SNCF in 1997; it owns the rail network and generates revenue via fees levied on journeys made by rail companies.


Schéma de Cohérence Territoriale

For a territory comprising one or many communes, the Territorial Cohesion Plan is a document that sets out steps for urban planning to be in line with the overall vision and objectives set out by the SDRIF. The SCOT gives direction to the communes which can interpret them locally with various local urbanisation documents (PLU, PDU, ZAC, etc).


Schéma Directeur Régional d’Ile-de-France

The Greater Paris Region’s Masterplan is an urbanisation and town planning document which defines policy at a regional level in terms of housing, transport, sustainable development and access to facilities.

The plan’s main aim is to control urban and demographic growth while maintaining the region’s international influence. SDRIF has also set 2 overarching fundamental objectives:

  • Improve the daily life of residents;
  • Improve the way the region functions

The practical implementation of SDRIF’s objectives is subject to the State-Region contract and Region-Department contracts which determine the scheduling and secure financing.

This planning document can be imposed on local authorities and communes. Other urbanisation documents such as the SCOT, the PLU or the PDU must be compatible with the SDRIF. The last SDRIF voted in October 2013 remains valid until 2030.



Schéma de Développement Territorial

The Territorial Development Plan is an intermediate document which aims to set the principles and the main levels for a territory (in terms of mobility and housing for example). It is then interpreted in a more operational manner via Territorial Development Contracts (CDT).


Société du Grand Paris

A Public Industrial and Commercial Establishment (EPIC) formed by the State to build the new automated métro for the Greater Paris project, the Grand Paris Express. It is the dedicated contracting authority.


Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer français

The French National Rail Company, a public company established in 1937 which specialises in rail transport. Responsible for passenger and goods transport, the company manages and maintains the whole of the French rail network on behalf of the Reseau Ferré de France (RFF).


Loi sur la Solidarité et le Renouvellement Urbain

The Solidarity and Urban Regeneration Act from 2000 modified French urban and housing law via SCOTs, PLUs and ZACs.   In particular, it requires communes to have a social housing element of at least 20%.


Syndicat des Transports d’Ile-de-France

The Paris Transport Association is the Greater Paris Region’s centre dedicated to the organisation of existing and future public transport.


Transports Express Régional

Regional Express Transport trains, managed by the SNCF, serving regional and local areas. This network complements the connectivity of transport in the Greater Paris Region alongside metros, RER and trams. In the Greater Paris Region, these trains are called Transilien.


Train à Grande Vitesse

These High-Speed Trains travel at speeds of 270 km/h to 320 km/h.  They link Paris to Lyon in 2 hrs, Marseilles in 3 hrs and Strasbourg in 2 hrs 20.


High-speed trains that link: Paris Gare du Nord to Brussels in 1 hr 20, Cologne in 3 hrs 10 and Amsterdam in 3 hrs 15.


Taxe Intérieure de consommation sur les Produits Pétroliers

The Domestic Tax on the Consumption of Petroleum Products is set by the Loi de Finances Initiale (LFI) which is the main tax in France on energy products. It was renamed “Taxe Intérieure de Consommation sur les Produits Energétique” or Domestic Tax on the Consumption of Energy Products” (TICPE) in 2011 due to the inclusion of other energy sources rather than just petroleum.


Taxe Sur les Bureaux

Office Tax is payable by the owners of offices, retail premises, storage premises or parking spaces located within the Greater Paris Region. This annual tax depends on the asset’s location. Taxes are used to finance the Grand Paris Express in particular.


Taxe Spéciale d’Equipement

This Special Facilities Tax is paid by both taxpayers and businesses and applies in town planning and construction projects; it aims to finance works listed in the region’s facilities programme. This is in addition to property taxes, housing tax and Company Property tax.


Established in 2007 in the capital, Vélib’ a self-service bicycle scheme. Since 2009, the system has been available in 30 communes within the Inner suburbs.


Versement Transport

The Transport Payment is made by employers to finance public transport. A total of €6 billion was received via these payments, with €3 billion alone from the Greater Paris Region alone in 2010.


Zone d’Aménagement Concerté

An Urban Development Zone is an area within which a local authority (or public body) decides to intervene to develop (or instruct others to) planning and facilities for greenfield or brownfield sites. These are public planning and facilities projects that are of general interest.

A ZAC must be compatible with the aims of the Territorial cohesion plan (SCOT). Works in a ZAC may only start if allowed under the Local Urbanism Plans (PLU).